Homesteaders had to produce their own food. They planted gardens and picked wild berries. Fruits and vegetables were preserved by pickling or drying. Jams and jellies were made. Food was stored in a root cellar. Fruits and vegetables were also sold to the general store in exchange for other goods.
PREPARING AND STORING FOOD
Cows were raised for meat and for milk which was churned into butter or made into cheese. Chickens provided eggs and meat. Ducks, geese and pigs were also raised. Oxen or horses pulled plows and wagons.
Settlers also hunted deer, rabbits, wild ducks and prairie chickens, or caught fish.
When the settlers arrived they had to clear the land. Trees were chopped down and stumps were pulled out with a team of oxen. The first settlers used hand tools to clear the land, plant and harvest the crops.
Later a plow (or plough) was used to work the land. The plow was pulled by oxen or horses. It took alot of hard work to produce a small crop. Wheat, barley, rye and oats were planted. There had to be enough to feed the animals in the winter. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Most of the early settlers did not have many clothes. The settlers made their own clothing from woolen cloth and linen cloth.
MAKING CLOTH AND CLOTHING
The long dresses that the women and girls wore were made of the "homespun cloth". An apron covered the dress.
CLOTHES FOR THE FAMILY
Clothing was also made from skins (hides) of animals like deer and rabbit. The skins were made into leather. Coats, shoes, hats and men's pants were some of the items made from leather.
Old wornout clothes were used for making patchwork quilts or rugs for the floor.
At first candles were the only light that the settlers had, besides the light from the fireplace. Some candles were made from beeswax, but most were made from animal fat. Making candles was a messy job and it took a long time.
GETTING HELP FROM THE FIRST NATIONS AND METIS PEOPLE
| Survival - food & clothing | School, general store, blacksmith |
| Inside a settler's home | Transportation | Fun & games | Pioneer communities |
| Links | Canada - Index | Web Pages for Students |
web page by J. Giannetta
graphics - credits
lady and girl - Musen's graphics