|The first schools were made of sod, stone, logs or boards. The teacher taught all the grades together in one room. In the winter it was cold indoors, because a small woodburning stove was all that heated the school. On very cold winter days, the students sat close to the stove to keep warm.|
|Children had to get up early to do their chores, then walk a long way to the school. They helped to keep the school clean by sweeping the floor, cleaning the board and the desks. The boys would have to bring in wood and pails of drinking water. Extra chores were given to students who misbehaved .||
|Many of the children did not speak English. In school they learned reading, writing, arithmetic, spelling and geography. There were only a few books available so children shared readers.|
|The younger children used a slate and chalk. The older students wrote with a quill and ink , or a pen that was dipped in ink .|
As more people settled in an area, someone opened up a general store in the community. Farming families did not make it to town often. Instead of cash they traded some of their goods for the things they needed. Sometimes they traded their extra butter, eggs or vegetables for things that they could not grow (baking powder, tea, coffee) or make. Shoes, hammers, saws, nails, wire, dishes, pots and material to make clothing were sold at the general store.
The blacksmith was an important member of a pioneer community. He worked with metal. He made tools and farm implements. Carriages, wagons and farm machinery were repaired and horses were shod. The blacksmith shop was a very busy place.
Learn more about the BLACKSMITH.
| Survival - food & clothing | School, general store, blacksmith |
| Inside a settler's home | Transportation | Fun & games | Pioneer communities |
| Links | Canada | Web Pages for Students |
web page by J. Giannetta 1999
graphics - credits
photo of the blacksmith (public domain) source